The Angle of Repose

The Angle of Repose


One of the better references regarding basic hydraulics is a book published in 1943 – Audels Pumps, Hydraulics, Air Compressors: A Practical Treatise by Frank D. Graham. Here is an interesting graphics showing the “angle of repose” for a typical pile of material. The “angle of repose” is defined as”The greatest angle with the horizontal at […]

Aesthetics of Waterworks Facilities

Aesthetics of Waterworks Facilities


Aesthetics is a subject not particularly relevant to most 21st century engineers. From reading “The Manual of British Water Supply”, published in 1950 by the Institution of Water Engineers, one concludes that this was likewise true for most 19th and 20th century engineers. Here is an interesting comment on engineers’ relationship with aesthetics at that […]

Trench Compaction: ODOT vs. WSDOT

Trench Compaction: ODOT vs. WSDOT


One of the more significant differences between the APWA/ODOT Standard Specification and the APWA/WSDOT Standard Specification is that the latter limits the depth of backfill lifts to 12 inches, while the former has no minimum backfill lifts. Not to suggest those in the Evergreen State know more about trench construction than to those from Beaver State–it […]

Well Point Dewatering

Well Point Dewatering


A good graphic showing the principals of well point dewatering is from the book Ground Water and Wells, published by one of the most popular well screen manufacturers, Edward E. Johnson, Inc. The graphic shows how two wells can be used to lower the water table as long as their areas of influence overlap.

Fire Hydrant Flushing and Testing

Fire Hydrant Flushing and Testing


The consulting firm H2O in Motion prepared a great Powerpoint presentation covering the importance and methods of fire hydrant flushing. The title understates the valuable information in the presnetation, in particular an excellent overview of fire flow requirements and an equally excellent graphic showing why water distribution engineers need to think in terms of hydraulic grade lines.

Single Acting Bucket Valve Pump

Single Acting Bucket Valve Pump


One of the better references regarding basic hydraulics is a book by Frank D. Graham published in 1943 entitled Audels Pumps, Hydraulics, Air Compressors.  Here is one of the more interesting graphics:

Well Screens

Well Screens


By understanding the principals behind well screen development, a municipal engineer also understands issues related to the control of landslides, excavation dewatering, and foundation stabilization.  The following graphics are from the book Ground Water and Wells published by one of the most popular well screen manufacturers, Edward E. Johnson, Inc.  

Water Utility Organization

Water Utility Organization


The Manual of British Water Supply published in 1950 by the Institution of Water Engineers included a very informative discussion of water utility organization. It included two organization charts, both shown below; Figure 89 for a medium sized utility, and Figure 90 for large utility.

Professional Pedestrian: Edward Payson Weston

Professional Pedestrian: Edward Payson Weston


Being a pedestrian was a profession in the early 1900s. Who knew? One of the more notable professional pedestrians of the era was Edward Payson Weston. Born in 1839, he made his living by long-distance walking in an era when such activity was viewed by the public as worthy of attention as professional sports are […]

VFD’s Efficiency

VFD’s Efficiency


Here is a very good article about VFD’s from Flygt Apparently the best application for VFDs is when the dynamic head is high compared to the static head. This allows the pump to remain at its best efficiency point when it is ramped down.